History why the boundaries of Abyssinia / Ethiopia changed several times from 1855-2021Abyssenia had never had demarcated boundary before 1855. It also never had a central government until 1855. The regions of Abyssenia had known selfrule for centuries, with own local govenors and territories that varried with the power of the governor. The higher governers had the titles of Ras (princes). There were Ras's of Tigray, Gojam, Shewa, Agew and Wollo etc. Such governors becomes Nigus (king) when other region or regions are included in the administration and taxes were willingly or forcefully collected from the regions.
As mentioned above, the name Ethiopia was not known to Ethiopians during the Zemene Mesafint (before 1855). It was Atse Tewodros from Kimant (ruled 1855-1867) who forcefully succeeded to rule several regions under the name Abyssenia. He is considered to be the founder of the then unified Abyssenia.
Atse (emperor) Yohannes (ruled 1867-1889) from Tigray succeeded Tewodros and continued to rule Abyssenia. He had correctly claimed the title of 'niguse negest' (king of kings) of Abyssenia, since he had several kings under his Administration. Yohannes fought and defended Abyseenia from foreign invaders (Egypt, Turkey, Italy, the Mahadists etc). He had secured the northern boundary, the Red Sea, of Abyssenia. The region Shewa constituted the southern boundry of his administration.
Atse Minilik (ruled 1889-1913) from Shewa who ruled Abyssenia after Yohannes had made deals to demarcate the boundaries of Abyssenia. To the North he handed over the Red Sea including northern Tigray (now Eritrea) to the Italians. To the south he expanded Abyssenia territory to what is now known as Ethiopia. Under his rule the territory of Ethiopia became much larger than Abyssenia.
The Shewa Amhara ruling groups began to use the name Ethiopia instead of Abyssenia after the expantion, made by emperor Minilik (1889-1913), to the south. For the southern peoples, the Abyssenia was not theirs. Thus they accepted the new name Ethiopia they got from Minilik. (click sidebar 1889-1913 for the map)
The international cummunity used Abyssenia and Ethiopia synonimously until the early 1930's, the year Haileselasse officially abolished the name Abyssenia.
Queen Zewditu (daughter of Minilik) and Lij Eyassu (a nefew) ruled Abyssenia (ruled 1913-1931). in relation to the borders nothing had changed in Abyssenia under their rule. They were occupied with power struggle against Hailesellass, who used to be called Ras Teferi.
Atse Haileselasee (ruled 1931-1974) officially changed the name Abyssenia to Ethiopia in the early 1930's. He also divided Ethiopia into 13 provinces. By doing so he took distance from the name Abyssenia. Later in the early 1960's he made Eritrea the 14th province of Ethiopia.
Haileselasse divided Ethiopia in 13 provinces with no consultation with the population. The whole nation was property of the Emperor. He used to take some part of a region and give it to another governor he favors. Like that, in 1955 (1948 etth.C), Haileselasse gave Southern Raya of Tigray to his son Asfawessen who was governor of Wollo. In 1956 he gave Welkait (Western Tigray) to the so called Begemder province. Later after Eritrea was unified with Ethiopia he took Aseb area (Red Sea coast) that of Eritrea and part of Afar to Wollo.
Colonel Mengistu, Derg- military junta, (1974-1991) tried to retain Ethiopia as is, but failed. Eritrea became independent in 1991 (officially 1993).
Mr. Meles Zenawi (ruled 1991-2012) from Tigray, divided Ethiopia into 9 regions based on language and Ethnicity. In 1991, when Meles created the regions, he took part of western Tigray and half of southern Raya back to Tigray. But gave a large part of Eastern Tigray to the newly created Afar region.
The successor Meles, Mr. Hailemariam, failed to govern the country and handed the power over to Mr. Abiy Ahmed in 2018.
Now, the Amhara are wrongly claiming specifically Welkait and Raya from Tigray. They don't claim Aseb that is under Eritrea and that part of Afar that was under the rule of the Son of Haileselasse.(Asfawesen0).They use Welait and Raya as pretext to start the war against Tigray.
Abiy Ahmed (2018 - now) has not changed the boundaries yet. Unfortunately Abiy is not taken long to recognize Abiy as a despotic dictator. Since he came to power, 3 years ago, he has proved hemself to be against self rule of the regions. He has manifested that in almost all of the regions. Many known well known Ethiopian politicians are killed and many, tens of thousands kept in prison during the last 3 years.
Tigray was the only region that Abiy could not subjugate easily. Thus, he made alliance with foreign countries and Amhara regional government and invaded Tigray in november 2020. Since then, Tigray is figting back and determined to rule itself. However, with almost a total of 1,000,000 armed soldiers fighting in Tigray, the damage and the atrocities that took place in Tigray are beyond one can comprehend.
The Ethiopian, Eritrean, Somali and Amhara region soldiers had taken over the whole Tigray for more than 8 months. In that period, Every thing in Tigray is deistroyed. The infrastructure, all government and private organizationas, health center, clinicks and hospitals, fabrics (textile fabric, leather fabric, laboratories, etc.z), all industries (incllusieve pharmacetical industry etc, schools distroyed and made military camps. All communications services don't function. There is total black-out of cummunication in Tigray. No single public service functions in Tigray. Ther is no public transport service, no telephone, no internet services. Also no banking, no drinkwater, noenergy services are provided.
The atrocities mentioned above are part of systematic extrimination of the people of Tigray. Genocide is taking place, ttens of thousends of women are raped , (rape is used as weeapon of war. Farm lands, silo's containing grains are burned. millions of cattle are killed or taken to Eritrea an Amhara region. Sin short hunger is used as weapon of war.
After all these damages, the indipendence of Tigray has become imminent. There is no single Tigraway who wants to remain with Ethiopia. Considering the above facts, history and explanation one can come to a conclusion that if Tigray becomes independent country, Ethiopia has no background to claim ancient history. The history of the rest of (south, west and East) Ethiopians has nothing to do with that of ancient history of Abyssenia or Tigray. Therefore, if Tigray becomes independent, the other regions might follow and become independent, leaving Ethiopia disintegrated. It will not take long time for Ethiopia to become history, just like Yugoslavia did in the the early 1990's.